Classification of forests is done under various parameters. Here are some 20 different types of forests with their names found all over the globe. Let us know more about them before we enter into forest lands in India and their details.
The temperate deciduous forest is also called temperate broad-leaf forest. This type of forest is mainly found in the Northern hemisphere. It is also found in some areas of southern South America and Australasia, the regions of East Asia, Europe, and North America. Northern hemisphere includes trees like oak, maple, elm in this deciduous forest.
In the natural forest, 30% is canopy cover, and of which, 75% of the canopy is broadleaf and deciduous. There is a phenomenon of seasonal appearance and disappearance of a canopy. The migratory birds appear during the opening of the canopy and woodpeckers are frequently seen as they mainly depend on dead and dying trees as the source of their shelter and food as well.
In this type of forest, the canopy is composed of deciduous trees with thorns. This forest is below 1200 m altitudes with 30% canopy cover. This forest covers a large part of southwestern Africa and Southwestern North America. It also covers some parts of Africa, Australia and South America. Thorn forest has a scrub like vegetation and is a dense forest. Dry subtropical and warm temperate areas with seasonal or low rainfall are the characteristic features of the thorn forest.
In South America, the thorn forest mainly consists of small thorny trees which shed seasonally. The average height of the trees is between 7 meters and 8 meters, not more than 10 m. This thorn forest grades into a desert as the climate becomes adverse and drier. Thus, the name of this type of forest suits the type of vegetation found over here. The picture above will give you an idea of yet another different type of forests in the world.
The term mangrove comes from Spanish and is considered to be originated from Guarani. The main characteristic feature of mangrove forest is that they are usually found along the coast of saltwater. They are located between latitudes 25 N and 25 S. Mangrove forest occurs in the tropical regions worldwide. Mangroves are found in tidal areas and where areas include the marine shorelines. They are scrubland habitat or saline woodland habitat where there is a high depositional in the area. The mangrove swamps protect the coastal areas from soil erosion, tsunamis, cyclones, and storms. The unique ecosystem is seen in the complex mesh of the roots. Algae, sponges, oysters, mud lobsters are usually found in this habitat.
Mangrove broadleaf found in 118 countries and regions of tropical and subtropics. India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam and other countries among which Asia has the largest amount of mangroves with other parts of Africa, North and South America. Deltas of river Ganges, Godavari and others are known for mangrove forest. Sundarbans National park in India is Northwestern example for mangroves and listed in UNESCO world heritage for the ecosystem present there and mainly known for Royal Bengal Tiger and other variety of flora and fauna.
The sparse trees and Parkland forest are the ones in which tree canopy cover is between 10% to 30% like the trees found in savannah regions of the globe. These trees occur in the areas mainly from forested to non-forested landscapes. The boreal region and seasonally dry region are the two regions at which this type of ecosystem is present. The vegetation is also called open lichen woodland, forest-tundra, and taiga.
In the boreal forest at high temperature, the conditions for growth are not appropriate to easily maintain a continuous forest cover. For this reason, the forest cover in that region is discontinuous and sparse. Trees of the types of needle leaf, palms, broadleaf are found in this forest. It has high bryophyte and deficit of species in this type of forests.
The canopy cover of trees in this forest is higher than 30%, and these types of trees are mostly found below altitude 1200 meters. Long and cold winter regions predominately have this type of forest. The needle leaf forests are spread across northern Europe, Canada, and Siberia. They are also called softwood forests. This forest also covers the mountain regions of Rocky Mountains and Alps. Firs and larches usually grow in the northern forests, even with broad leaf trees like willows, etc.
Willow can grow even farther north, than these trees used to do. Many of the world largest trees are found into the western United States. Some redwoods are as tall as 91 meters in height. Some of them grew in warmer regions and are located in South Eastern United States consisting of vast forest of pines. Needle leaf forest is useful for providing a higher quantity of wood for different purposes.